What is CAATSA?
By using economic sanctions, the law punishes countries that have deep ties with Russia, North Korea, and Iran. Some US lawmakers have called for a waiver for India, which has begun acquiring Russian S-400 missile systems.
The independence of India’s defense policy has always been emphasized.
The US government shouldn’t impose sanctions on India for its purchase of Russian S-400 missile weapons systems under the Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA), Democratic Representative Ro Khanna said Thursday (July 7).
“The US should encourage India to accelerate its transition to Russian weapons and defense systems while strongly supporting India’s immediate defense needs,” Khanna said. During his speech, he highlighted the need for the system because of “Chinese aggression” at Indian borders.
It has been demanded by other American lawmakers that India not be sanctioned in the past. Republican Senator Todd Young, who is a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, wrote in April 2021 that sanctions against India would undermine their relations and also affect the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD), an Indo-Pacific network of democracies that includes the US, Japan, Australia, and India.
Despite India receiving the weapons from Russia in late 2021, the administration under Biden has not yet given a clear statement on whether India might be subject to CAATSA sanctions.
In 2017, CAATSA was passed in the US, meant to punish countries engaging in deep economic engagement with Russia, North Korea, and Iran. Sanctions will be imposed on countries with “significant transactions” with Russian intelligence agents and military personnel.
Normal transactions will not be sanctioned, and who is sanctioned depends on how “significant transactions” are interpreted. As one of the several waivers or exemptions mentioned, the transaction does not affect US strategic interests or endanger alliances it is a part of.
Section 231 of the law notifies 39 entities of Russia, including Rosoboronexport, Sukhoi Aviation, and Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG, that transactions with them may invite sanctions. In this list is Almaz-Antey Air and Space Defence Corporation JSC, which makes the S-400 system.
In order to launch surface-to-air missile attacks, India has purchased S-400 Triumf missile systems, which can judge the distance from a target. India purchased five such systems for US$ 5.5 billion in 2018 and began delivering them in November last year. Punjab was the location of their deployment.
The CAATSA may also be applied to other joint ventures for manufacturing or developing weapons in the future, as well as any other major deals with Russia.
Some of the reasons for punishing engagement with Russia included allegations of Russian interference in the 2016 Presidential election and its role in the Syrian war.
The Act was deemed “seriously flawed” by former US President Donald Trump, who was accused of “colluding” with Russia in the elections and during whose term it came into effect.
EU countries such as France and Germany, which had even closer ties to Russia before the Ukraine-Russia conflict in 2022, also criticized CAATSA. Reuters reported that France’s foreign ministry said the new policy was “at odds with international law due to its extraterritorial reach.”
As a result of the purchase of the S-400 system, Turkey was sanctioned in 2020. “Today, the United States is imposing sanctions on the Republic of Turkey’s Presidency of Defence Industries (SSB)…for intentionally engaging in a significant transaction with Rosoboronexport, Russia’s main arms exporter.”, Pompeo had said at the time.
According to the release, Turkey ignored repeated warnings not to complete the purchase and, as a result, was sanctioned.
CAATSA has never been categorically stated to apply to India by the US. President Biden has yet to make a commitment on the matter, according to reports in March 2022. “India is one of our most important security partners right now,” said Donald Lu, Assistant Secretary of State for South and Central Asia. As a result of the extreme criticism that Russia has faced, I hope India decides it’s now time to draw further distances from Russia.”
Despite the ongoing conflict in Ukraine and the US hardening its stance against Russia, India has remained neutral and is not joining any of the Western sanctions against Russia. S-400 missiles have been mentioned several times as being necessary for India’s border defense in the past.
As then External Affairs Ministry spokesperson Anurag Srivastava had stated in January last year, “India has always pursued an independent foreign policy.” Our defense acquisitions and supplies are also guided by our national security interests.”
Several US lawmakers have argued for granting India an exception before Rep. Ro Khanna and Sen. Todd Young. Sens. Mark Warner (D-Virginia) and John Cornyn (R-Texas) wrote to Biden in October 2021, asking him not to sanction India: “…we strongly urge you to grant a CAATSA waiver to India for its planned purchase of the S-400 Triumf surface-to-air missile system.”
Impact of different versions of diabetes medicine
There are more than 70 million diabetes patients in India who will benefit from a reduction in the price of generic versions of diabetes medications.
As the patent on diabetes medicine sitagliptin expires, many pharmaceutical companies are rushing to launch generic versions of the drug. This is likely to bring the price down by at least a third, according to industry experts. Because sitagliptin does not cause low blood sugar episodes and is backed by robust data, doctors believe many diabetics may switch if it becomes cheaper.
This article explains what the drug is and how lower prices will benefit India’s 77 million diabetics.
The blood sugar-lowering drug sitagliptin lowers blood sugar levels. This is one of the first gliptins, which restrains a protein called DPP-4, and this impacts the metabolic system so that the pancreas increases insulin secretion and regulates blood sugar levels. The pharmaceutical company Novartis also developed medicine in the same category, Vildagliptin, which went off patent late last year, resulting in a price drop.
The drug has a good glucose-lowering capability and does not have many side effects, according to our 14-year experience with it. As an eminent diabetologist and executive director of Fortis C-DOC Hospital, which specializes in endocrine diseases, Dr. Anoop Misra said, “It is safe for both young and old because it does not cause hypoglycemia.”
In his experience, four out of ten patients receive one of the gliptins, with sitagliptin being the most common because of good data on its efficacy. In addition, the trials of the medicine have shown that it does not adversely affect the heart. According to Dr. Misra, there have been excellent trials showing that it doesn’t harm the heart. The heart must not be harmed by any diabetic drug…even better if it can benefit it.”
edited and proofread by nikita sharma
It was the drug of choice to treat type-2 diabetes, in which the body is incapable of regulating blood sugar levels due to insufficient insulin production or resistance to its impact. An emerging class of drugs called SGLT-2 inhibitors, also known as gliflozins, reduce blood glucose levels by preventing the reabsorption of glucose from the blood after it is filtered by the kidneys.
“Until another type of diabetes drug came along and overshadowed it, it was the blockbuster drug. Some years ago, a new class of drugs called SGLT-2 inhibitors was introduced, and it had a better effect on the heart. Therefore, it is now more frequently used. In addition, teneligliptin (a drug from the same category) was made very affordable. Therefore, teneligliptin and the SGLT-2 inhibitors have eaten up the sitagliptin market,” said Dr. Misra.
Despite the fact that SGLT-2 inhibitors remain the best in the category, sitagliptin’s lower price will likely re-capture the market of teneligliptin. Dr. Misra said: “The problem with teneligliptin is that it lacks robust clinical data. Therefore, lowering sitagliptin’s price will encourage people who were using other medicines because of price constraints to come back to sitagliptin, increasing its sales.”
Additionally, there are almost no side effects associated with it. There are problems with hypoglycemia (low sugar levels), metformin has gastrointestinal side-effects, and SGLT-2 inhibitors cause urinary infections in some patients,” he said.
A number of companies are likely to produce generic versions of the drug, resulting in a reduction of a third of the current price of more than Rs 20 per tablet. It is expected that more than 50 companies with over 100 brands will bring the drug to market between July and August 2022, according to pharmaceutical market research firm AIOCD Awacs PharmaTrac. Since vildagliptin and SGLT-2 inhibitor dapagliflozin went off-patent, there has been a shift towards them.
Zydus Lifesciences has introduced Sitaglyn and Siglyn, which are likely to cost 60 percent less than the original drug or first version, according to the company. With the addition of Sitaglyn and Siglyn to our diabetes portfolio, patients will have access to a world-class oral therapy to help them manage their diabetes better, said Dr. Sharvil Patel, Managing Director of Zydus Lifesciences.
In addition, Glenmark Pharmaceuticals announced eight fixed-dose combinations of sitagliptin under the name Sitazit. This was the first company to launch the generic version of vildagliptin, resulting in a price war. As per the spokesperson for Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, the company will launch sitagliptin under the brand name Stig. Dr. Reddy’s Stig will be one of the most affordably-priced options for patients living with diabetes in keeping with the company’s mission ‘Good Health Can’t Wait.”
The eminent diabetologist Dr. V Mohan tweeted that price and efficacy must be balanced: “Sitagliptin goes off patent.”. Generic versions are now available from several Indian companies. Although prices have crashed, it is important to maintain quality.”
Who shot Shinzo Abe?
Tetsuya Yamagami reportedly told investigators he intended to kill former prime minister Shinzo Abe because he was “dissatisfied.” At the same time, he claimed he did not dislike Abe’s political views.
A 41-year-old man identified as Tetsuya Yamagami shot former Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe on Friday (July 8) in Nara, Japan.
Yamagami was previously in the Japanese navy, known as the Japanese Maritime Self-Defence Force (JMSDF). Abe, Japan’s longest-serving PM, remained critical for a few hours after being shot in his chest. Reuters reported that a sitting or former premier of Japan had been assassinated for the first time in around a century.
A gun was recovered from the area after Tetsuya Yamagami was apprehended by security forces at the scene. Yamagami was arrested on charges of attempted murder, according to NHK World.
Yamagami told investigators he intended to kill the former Prime Minister because he was dissatisfied. It was also stated, however, that he “did not resent Abe’s political beliefs.”
The AP reported that he was responding calmly to questions. The AP reported that he planned to kill Abe because he believed rumors about his connection to an organization that police did not identify.
The gun he used was made by him, according to police. AP reports that similar weapons and Yamagami’s personal computer were confiscated during a raid on Yamagami’s one-room apartment nearby. NHK reported that residents near the area had been evacuated.
Yamagami was born in Nara city, where he shot Abe.
Most of its elected officials belong to Abe’s party, the Liberal Democratic Party, which has dominated Japan since 1955. Yamagami did not seem politically active, according to a former company source. In May, he left a manufacturing company for health reasons after working there since 2020.
The force, also known as the Japanese navy, is based on the National Security Strategy approved in December 2013, and the National Defense Program Guidelines approved in December 2018.
According to its mission statement, the JMSDF’s goals are to defend Japan’s territory and surrounding areas, ensure the safety of maritime traffic, and create a desirable security environment.
The Japanese military is technically restricted by Article 9 of its Constitution, but since 1954, the country has maintained a ‘Self Defence Force’ with significant weapons and personnel. The Japanese people forever renounce war as a nation’s sovereign right and the threat or use of force as a means of resolving international disputes, according to Article 9.
Afterward, it was reported to have been homemade. Two pipes appeared to have been used to assemble the gun. The sound of the shots was similar to that of blasts, according to witnesses.
Because of their strict laws on weapons, Japanese gun shootings are rare, and mass shootings are unheard of. Applicants to obtain a weapon had to take an all-day class, take a written exam, and pass a shooting range test with a mark of at least 95%, according to a BBC report from 2017.
There is an outright ban on handguns, and only shotguns and air rifles are allowed, according to the report. According to some speculation, Yamagami’s gun might have been made using 3D printing. A strict set of regulations must be followed by those using firearms in self-defense forces.
edited and proofread by nikita sharma